Group-standing of whistler mode waves near the Moon

Y. Tsugawa, Y. Katoh, N. Terada, T. Ono, H. Tsunakawa, F. Takahashi, H. Shibuya, H. Shimizu, M. Matsushima

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Narrowband whistler mode waves with frequencies near 1 Hz have been observed near the Moon. We reveal that the narrowband spectra, the frequency concentration near 1 Hz, and the relations between the wave vector, magnetic field vector, and sunward directions can be explained by a condition in which the group velocity vector is almost canceled by the solar wind velocity vector in the spacecraft frame. Hereafter, we refer to this condition as the group-standing condition. The spectral density is modified and has a peak at the frequency satisfying the group-standing condition because of the difference of the frequency width between the solar wind plasma frame and the spacecraft frame. In addition, if the waves were decelerated to be group-standing, the conservation of the energy flux results in the intensification of the wave amplitude at that frequency. We also derive the analytical expression of the amount of the modifications, which depend on the group velocity. These effects can explain the narrowband spectra near 1 Hz and support the relations between the wave vector, magnetic field vector, and sunward directions. The estimated frequency which satisfies the group-standing condition is in good agreement with the observed frequency within error bars of the estimation. Considering the group-standing condition, we suggest that the narrowband waves observed in the spacecraft frame are originated from oblique whistler mode waves in the frequencies near the lower hybrid frequency, which are possibly generated by reflected ions from the lunar magnetic anomalies. Key Points Group-standing causes spectral modification between spacecraft and plasma frames Narrowband whistler mode waves near 1 Hz are formed by the group-standing Wave properties observed near the Moon agree with the group-standing condition

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2634-2648
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Apr


  • Doppler shift
  • bow shock
  • group velocity
  • solar wind
  • upstream
  • whistler mode


Dive into the research topics of 'Group-standing of whistler mode waves near the Moon'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this