Hardness perception based on dynamic stiffness in tapping

Kosuke Higashi, Shogo Okamoto, Yoji Yamada, Hikaru Nagano, Masashi Konyo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


A human can judge the hardness of an object based on the damped natural vibration caused by tapping the surface of the object using a fingertip. In this study, we investigated the influence of the dynamic characteristics of vibrations on the hardness perceived by tapping. Subjectively reported hardness values were related to the dynamic stiffness of several objects. The dynamic stiffness, which characterizes the impulsive response of an object, was acquired across the 40-1,000 Hz frequency range for cuboids of 14 types of materials by administering a hammering test. We performed two psychophysical experiments-a ranking task and a magnitude-estimation tasks-wherein participants rated the perceived hardness of each block by tapping it with a finger. We found that the perceptual effect of dynamic stiffness depends on the frequency. Its effect displayed a peak around 300 Hz and decreased or disappeared at higher frequencies, at which human perceptual capabilities are limited. The acquired results help design hardness experienced by products.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2654
JournalFrontiers in Psychology
Issue numberJAN
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jan 4


  • Dynamic stiffness
  • Frequency
  • Hardness perception
  • Principal component analysis
  • Vibration


Dive into the research topics of 'Hardness perception based on dynamic stiffness in tapping'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this