Background We previously demonstrated that heart failure (HF) was one of the major causes of death in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). The purpose of this study was to elucidate the clinical impact and risk factors of HF in patients with ARVC. Methods and results We evaluated cardiac adverse outcomes including HF in 113 consecutive patients with ARVC (85 men, mean age: 44 ± 15 years). During a median follow-up of 10.0 years (interquartile range: 5.2 to 15.7 years), 29 patients (26%) were hospitalized for progressive HF. The patients with one or more episodes of HF hospitalization had about a 10-fold increased incidence of cardiac death (14/29 [48%] vs. 4/84 [4.7%], p < 0.0001). Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) were significantly lower in the patients with HF hospitalization compared to the patients without HF hospitalization (LVEF, 45 ± 15 vs. 54 ± 13%, p = 0.001; RVEF, 26 ± 10 vs. 33 ± 11%, p = 0.003, respectively). Regarding the ECG findings, the prevalence of first-degree atrioventricular block (AVB, PR interval > 200 ms) and epsilon waves were significantly higher in patients with HF hospitalization than those without HF hospitalization (first-degree AVB, 14/29 [48%] vs. 11/84 [13%], p < 0.0001; epsilon waves, 10/29 [34%] vs. 12/84 [14%], p = 0.02). In multivariate analysis, first-degree AVB at baseline was the strongest independent risk factor for HF hospitalization in patients with ARVC (hazard ratio 4.24, 95% confidence interval 1.79–10.47, p = 0.0011). Conclusion HF hospitalization has a significant relation with malignant clinical course in ARVC patients. First-degree AVB was an independent determinant for increased risk of HF hospitalization.
- Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy
- Atrial arrhythmias
- First-degree atrioventricular block
- Heart failure