Heavy ion irradiation induces autophagy in irradiated C2C12 myoblasts and their bystander cells

Mizuki Hino, Nobuyuki Hamada, Yuki Tajika, Tomoo Funayama, Yoshihiro Morimura, Tetsuya Sakashita, Yuichiro Yokota, Kana Fukamoto, Yasuko Mutou, Yasuhiko Kobayashi, Hiroshi Yorifuji

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Autophagy is one of the major processes involved in the degradation of intracellular materials. Here, we examined the potential impact of heavy ion irradiation on the induction of autophagy in irradiated C2C12 mouse myoblasts and their non-targeted bystander cells. In irradiated cells, ultrastructural analysis revealed the accumulation of autophagic structures at various stages of autophagy (i.e. phagophores, autophagosomes and autolysosomes) within 20 min after irradiation. Multivesicular bodies (MVBs) and autolysosomes containing MVBs (amphisomes) were also observed. Heavy ion irradiation increased the staining of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 and LysoTracker Red (LTR). Such enhanced staining was suppressed by an autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. In addition to irradiated cells, bystander cells were also positive with LTR staining. Altogether, these results suggest that heavy ion irradiation induces autophagy not only in irradiated myoblasts but also in their bystander cells.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)495-501
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Electron Microscopy
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2010 Dec


  • autophagy
  • bystander effect
  • electron microscopy
  • heavy ion irradiation
  • laser scanning microscopy
  • myoblasts


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