Heterogeneous microstructures and corrosion resistance of biomedical Co-Cr-Mo alloy fabricated by electron beam melting (EBM)

Daixiu Wei, Yuichiro Koizumi, Akihiko Chiba, Kosuke Ueki, Kyosuke Ueda, Takayuki Narushima, Yusuke Tsutsumi, Takao Hanawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Citations (Scopus)


We have investigated the spatial distribution of microstructures of a Co-Cr-Mo alloy rod fabricated by Electron Beam Melting (EBM) method along built height. The topside of the rod is rich in γ-fcc phase and consists of fine grains with high local distortion density. The bottom part has an ε-hcp single phase and consists of relatively coarser grains with low local distortion density. The middle part of the rod consisted of the mixture of both phases. The mean grain size increases from 56 μm (at the top of the rod) to 159 μm (at the bottom), and is accompanied by a decrease in the γ-fcc phase fraction. On the other hand, a large number of precipitates including the main M 23 X 6 phase and minor phases (η-phase and π-phase) were observed. The area fraction of the precipitates increases gradually from 5.26% (at the top) to 8.73% (at the bottom), and the relative proportion of each phase fluctuates at different positions. The hardness of the top side is lower than that of the bottom side. As a result, the hardness of the samples, as well as the area fraction of precipitates formed in the samples, increases gradually from top to bottom of the rod, while corrosion resistance is uniformly high throughout the rod almost independently of the location. The mechanism behind the formation of phase distribution is discussed in terms of thermodynamic phase stability and kinetics of phase transformation accompanying the thermal history during the post-solidification process.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)103-114
Number of pages12
JournalAdditive Manufacturing
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Dec


  • Additive manufacturing
  • Cobalt chromium molybdenum alloy
  • Electron beam melting
  • Phase transformation
  • Precipitates

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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