High-Resolution X-ray Phase-Contrast Imaging and Sensory and Rheometer Tests in Cooked Edamame

Masafumi Hidaka, Shuhei Miyashita, Naoto Yagi, Masato Hoshino, Yukiya Kogasaka, Tomoyuki Fujii, Yoshinori Kanayama

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Although several reports exist on the use of X-ray analysis in vegetables and fruits to examine internal disorders, cavities, and porosity, information on X-ray analysis of qualities, such as texture, is lacking as well as information on X-ray analysis of legumes. Therefore, this study aimed to perform X-ray analysis with sensory and rheometer tests in cooked vegetable soybean (edamame). Edamame is popular worldwide due to its deliciousness and nutritional value. Vascular structures and cracks around them were clearly visualized using X-ray phase-contrast computed tomography (CT) imaging. In addition, we observed the fine structure of the seed coat, which could be important for seed development, germination, and processing. The density in the edamame beans declined as the boiling time increased, promoting a reduction in hardness described in sensory and rheometer tests. The reduction in density proceeded from the gap between cotyledons, the opposite side of the hypocotyl, and the crack. Collectively, the findings show that the high-resolution X-ray phase-contrast CT imaging conducted in a nondestructive manner may help in effectively evaluating the quality of vegetables and in observing the internal structures related to plant development.

Original languageEnglish
Article number730
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Mar 1


  • 3-D imaging
  • Edamame
  • Vegetable soybean
  • X-ray phase-contrast computed tomography


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