High-speed imaging of ultrasonic emulsification using a water-gallium system

Takuya Yamamoto, Ryo Matsutaka, Sergey V. Komarov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


Aiming at elucidating ultrasonic emulsification mechanisms, the interaction between a single or multiple acoustic cavitation bubbles and gallium droplet interface was investigated using an high-speed imaging technique. To our best knowledge, the moment of emulsification and formation of fine droplets during ultrasound irradiation were observed for the first time. It was found that the detachment of fine gallium droplets occurs from the water-gallium interface during collapse of big cavitation bubbles. The results suggest that the maximum size of cavitation bubble before collapsing is of prime importance for emulsification phenomena. Previous numerical simulation revealed that the collapse of big cavitation bubble is followed by generation of high-velocity liquid jet directed toward the water-gallium interface. Such a jet is assumed to be the prime cause of liquid emulsification. The distance between cavitation bubbles and water-gallium interface was found to slightly affect the emulsification onset. The droplet fragmentation conditions are also discussed in terms of the balance between (1) interfacial and kinetic energies and (2) dynamic and Laplace pressure during droplet formation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105387
JournalUltrasonics Sonochemistry
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Mar


  • Acoustic cavitation
  • Droplet and bubble behavior
  • High-speed imaging
  • High-speed liquid jet
  • Ultrasonic emulsification


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