Hybrid simulations of the O + ion escape from Venus: Influence of the solar wind density and the IMF x component

K. Liu, E. Kallio, R. Jarvinen, H. Lammer, H. I.M. Lichtenegger, Yu N. Kulikov, N. Terada, T. L. Zhang, P. Janhunen

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15 Citations (Scopus)


As an initial effort to study the evolution of the Venus atmosphere, the influence of the solar wind density and the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) x component (the x-axis points from Venus towards the Sun) on the O + ion escape rate from Venus is investigated using a three-dimensional quasi-neutral hybrid (HYB-Venus) model. The HYB-Venus model is first applied to a case of the high-density (100 cm -3 ) solar wind interaction with Venus selected from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter observations to demonstrate its capability for the study. Two sets of simulations with a wide range of solar wind densities and different IMF x components are then performed. It is found that the O + ion escape rate increases with increasing solar wind density. The O + ion escape rate saturates when the solar wind density becomes high (above 100 cm -3 ). The results also suggest that the IMF x component enhances the O + ion escape rate, given a fixed IMF component perpendicular to the x-axis. Finally, the results imply a higher ion loss rate for early-Venus, when solar conditions were dramatically different.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1436-1441
Number of pages6
JournalAdvances in Space Research
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2009 May 1
Externally publishedYes


  • Atmosphere evolution
  • HYB-Venus
  • Hybrid simulation
  • Ion escape
  • Venus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Geophysics
  • Atmospheric Science
  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)


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