Hydrothermal technology for nanotechnology

K. Byrappa, T. Adschiri

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

822 Citations (Scopus)


The importance of hydrothermal technology in the preparation of nanomaterials has been discussed in detail with reference to the processing of advanced materials for nanotechnology. Hydrothermal technology in the 21st century is not just confined to the crystal growth or leaching of metals, but it is going to take a very broad shape covering several interdisciplinary branches of science. The role of supercritical water and supercritical fluids has been discussed with appropriate examples. The physical chemistry of hydrothermal processing of advanced materials and the instrumentation used in their preparation with respect to nanomaterials have been discussed. The synthesis of monodispersed nanoparticles of various metal oxides, metal sulphides, carbon nanoforms (including the carbon nanotubes), biomaterials, and some selected composites has been discussed. Recycling, waste treatment and alteration under hydrothermal supercritical conditions have been highlighted. The authors have discussed the perspectives of hydrothermal technology for the processing of advanced nanomaterials and composites.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)117-166
Number of pages50
JournalProgress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2007 Jun


  • A1. Morphology control
  • A1. Nanostructures
  • A2. Hydrothermal technology
  • A2. Nanoparticles fabrication
  • A2. Solvothermal
  • A2. Supercritical fluid technology


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