Hypertrophic Pachymeningitis Development in Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis at Relapse of Disease: A Case-Based Review

Machi Kiyohara, Tsuyoshi Shirai, Shuhei Nishiyama, Hiroko Sato, Hiroshi Fujii, Tomonori Ishii, Hideo Harigae

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Hypertrophic pachymeningitis (HP) presents with thickening of the dura mater in the cerebrum and spine, and its symptoms vary depending on the affected location. The association of HP with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis has been recognized, and most cases are complicated by granulomatosis with polyangiitis. We report the case of a 47-year-old man who presented with HP upon relapse of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), with literature review. He presented with disturbance of consciousness, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed thickening of the dura mater around the left parietal lobe. Although myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA was positive on EGPA diagnosis, the elevation of MPO-ANCA was not documented at the onset of HP. Brain perfusion sci nti graphy showed an i ncrease i n bl ood fl ow i n the l eft pari etal l obe and temporal l obe, and electroencephalogram (EEG) revealed slow waves in the left parietal lobe. He was treated with a high dose of corticosteroid and rituximab, and the slow waves on EEG and brain perfusion were normalized. Although the most frequent symptom of HP is headache, disturbance of consciousness can be the manifestation of HP, and inflammation of HP could affect the cerebral parenchyma, which can be documented as abnormal EEG and perfusion scintigraphy. Literature review revealed that most of the HP in EGPA developed when EGPA relapsed, and was observed in patients with MPO-ANCA positivity. HP develops without evidence of other clinical features of EGPA; therefore, adequate imaging, including contrast-enhanced MRI, is necessary. Rituximab may be effective for treating HP complicated with EGPA.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)241-247
Number of pages7
JournalTohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Relapse
  • cerebral parenchyma
  • eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis
  • hypertrophic pachymeningitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)


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