Immunolocalization of cyclins D and E and cyclin dependent kinase (cdk) 2 and 4 in human breast carcinoma

Hironobu Sasano, Andra R. Frost, Ryuta Saitoh, Yousuke Taniyama, Hiroshi Nagura, Gen Matsunaga, Koh Takehana, Michio Kimura, Steven G. Silverberg

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24 Citations (Scopus)


We studied the immunolocalization of cyclins D1 and E and their corresponding partner cyclin dependent kinases (cdk), cdk4 and cdk2 in 41 cases of human breast malignancy (21 invasive ductal carcinomas and 19 invasive lobular carcinomas) and examined the correlation of the labeling indexes among these cyclins, cdks, Ki67, estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR). Cyclin D1 immunoreactivity was observed exclusively in the nuclei of tumor cells in 27/41 (65%) of the cases examined. Immunoreactivity for cyclin E and cdk2 was detected in all the cases and observed in the nuclei of both carcinoma and non-carcinoma cells. cdk4 immunoreactivity was detected in 39/41 (95%) cases and found in carcinoma and non-carcinoma cells. In all carcinomas examined, a significant correlation was observed only between Ki67 and cyclin D1 (p = 0.0037). However, when examining only invasive ductal carcinomas, a significant correlation was detected between Ki67 and cyclin D1 and cdk4 (P = 0.0024). Only cyclin D1 correlated with the pathologic stages of the disease and histological grades of invasive ductal carcinoma. Among these cyclins and cdk, overexpression of cyclin D1 is considered to play an important role in the development of human breast malignancy through abnormal proliferation. No significant correlation was observed between steroid receptor status and any of cyclins and cdks examined. Cyclin D1 and cdk2 expression correlated with cell proliferation (Ki67) and cyclin D1 expression with expression of cdk4 in invasive ductal carcinoma but not invasive lobular carcinoma. Cyclin E expression did not correlate with cell proliferation, cyclin D1 or cdks, possibly due to deregulation of its expression. These results also indicate different patterns of cyclin D1, cyclin E, cdk2 and dk4 expression between invasive ductal and lobular carcinoma of human breast.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3685-3690
Number of pages6
JournalAnticancer Research
Issue number5 A
Publication statusPublished - 1997 Sept


  • Breast
  • Cell proliferation
  • Cyclin dependent kinase
  • Cyclins
  • Immunohistochemistry


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