Impressions of Humanoids: The Development of a Measure for Evaluating a Humanoid

Hiroko Kamide, Tomohito Takubo, Kenichi Ohara, Yasushi Mae, Tatsuo Arai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


In this study, we focus on what perspectives people use to perceive a humanoid, and we explore the basic dimensions of a humanoid evaluation by ordinary people. We also develop the psychological scale called PERNOD (PERception to humaNOiD), a humanoid-oriented scale that is based on fundamental dimensions. Several studies have investigated the psychological evaluation of robots interaction with humans; however, almost studies have methodological limitations because few scales for the evaluation of psychological impressions of humanoids have been developed thus far. This study uses a humanoid of HRP-2 and explores what are the perspectives to evaluate the robot and investigate importance to develop humanoid-oriented scale. With free descriptions, 157 respondents provided impressions of a humanoid robot, and psychologists categorized the qualitative data into several groups according to psychological meanings of the impressions. Thereafter, the descriptions were organized in the form of a Likert scale in order to develop PERNOD, and 380 additional respondents evaluated a humanoid robot quantitatively using PERNOD. The result of factor analysis indicated that PERNOD comprises five basic dimensions for perceiving humanoid robots: Familiarity, Utility, Motion, Controllability, and Toughness. Some similarities are found in dimensions of evaluation for both humanoids and humans, and original dimensions are found in dimensions for humanoids. The reliability of each sub-scale of PERNOD is statistically high; further, the usability of this scale is discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)33-44
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Social Robotics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Jan
Externally publishedYes


  • Humanoid
  • Psychological evaluation
  • Psychological scale

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science(all)


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