In vitro fabrication of hybrid bone/cartilage complex using mouse induced pluripotent stem cells

Phoonsuk Limraksasin, Takeru Kondo, Maolin Zhang, Hiroko Okawa, Thanaphum Osathanon, Prasit Pavasant, Hiroshi Egusa

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18 Citations (Scopus)


Cell condensation and mechanical stimuli play roles in osteogenesis and chondrogenesis; thus, they are promising for facilitating self-organizing bone/cartilage tissue formation in vitro from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Here, single mouse iPSCs were first seeded in micro-space culture plates to form 3-dimensional spheres. At day 12, iPSC spheres were subjected to shaking culture and maintained in osteogenic induction medium for 31 days (Os induction). In another condition, the osteogenic induction medium was replaced by chondrogenic induction medium at day 22 and maintained for a further 21 days (Os-Chon induction). Os induction produced robust mineralization and some cartilage-like tissue, which promoted expression of osteogenic and chondrogenic marker genes. In contrast, Os-Chon induction resulted in partial mineralization and a large area of cartilage tissue, with greatly increased expression of chondrogenic marker genes along with osterix and collagen 1a1. Os-Chon induction enhanced mesodermal lineage commitment with brachyury expression followed by high expression of lateral plate and paraxial mesoderm marker genes. These results suggest that combined use of micro-space culture and mechanical stimuli facilitates hybrid bone/cartilage tissue formation from iPSCs, and that the bone/cartilage tissue ratio in iPSC constructs could be manipulated through the induction protocol.

Original languageEnglish
Article number581
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Jan 2


  • Bioengineering
  • iPS cells
  • Mechanical stimuli
  • Osteochondroral tissue
  • Self-organization


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