In-vitro heat-generating and apatite-forming abilities of PMMA bone cement containing TiO2 and Fe3O4

Moe Kubota, Taishi Yokoi, Tomoyuki Ogawa, Shin Saito, Maiko Furuya, Kotone Yokota, Hiroyasu Kanetaka, Balachandran Jeyadevan, Masakazu Kawashita

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement is widely used as a filler for repairing bone defects. To improve the effectiveness of the treatment for bone defects caused by metastatic bone tumours, we propose the formulation of PMMA cement containing titania (TiO2) and magnetite (Fe3O4) that offers high bone affinity, making the cement suitable for use in magnetic hyperthermia. The TiO2 and Fe3O4 contents of the PMMA cement varied from 20 to 45 mass%. The various cement samples were evaluated for their apatite-forming ability and heat-generation characteristics. The samples containing TiO2 in concentrations of 15 mass% or higher formed apatite on their surfaces within 14 days in a simulated body fluid. The heat-generation characteristics of the samples were evaluated by applying an alternating current (AC) magnetic field under the following conditions: |H| = 40 Oe and f = 600 kHz, or |H| = 100 Oe and f = 100 kHz. The surface temperatures of the samples containing 25 and 30 mass% Fe3O4 reached 42.3 and 44.8 °C, respectively, at |H| = 40 Oe and f = 600 kHz. During hyperthermia treatment, cancer cells die at temperatures higher than 42 °C, and the cement samples fabricated in this study could reach this temperature. However, since some degree of heat loss will occur in vivo, it is necessary to ensure that the temperature is higher than 42 °C by varying the AC magnetic field. Nevertheless, the fact that the samples containing Fe3O4 concentrations of 25 mass% or higher generated enough heat under the AC magnetic field makes them suitable for clinical use in hyperthermia. Thus, PMMA cement containing 15 mass% or more of TiO2 and 25 mass% or more of Fe3O4 should be investigated as a bioactive bone cement with a strong hyperthermia effect.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12292-12299
Number of pages8
JournalCeramics International
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2021 May 1


  • Apatite-forming ability
  • Hyperthermia
  • Magnetite
  • Titania

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Materials Chemistry


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