Existing research on the role of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in bivalve reproduction is inadequate, even though a few bivalve GnRH orthologs have been cloned. The objective of this paper was to elucidate the in vivo effect of GnRH administration in Yesso scallop reproduction. We performed in vivo administration of scallop GnRH (py-GnRH) synthetic peptide into the developing gonad, and analyzed its effect on gonad development for 6 weeks during the reproductive season. The resulting sex ratio in the GnRH administered (GnRH(+)) group might be male biased, whereas the control (GnRH(-)) group had an equal sex ratio throughout the experiment. The gonad index (GI) of males in the GnRH(+) group increased from week 2 to 24.8% at week 6. By contrast the GI of the GnRH(-) group peaked in week 4 at 16.6%. No significant difference was seen in female GI between the GnRH(+) and GnRH(-) groups at any sampling point. Oocyte diameter in the GnRH(+) group remained constant (about 42-45 μm) throughout the experiment, while in the GnRH(-) group it increased from 45 to 68 μm i.e. normal oocyte growth. The number of spermatogonia in the germinal acini of males in the GnRH(+) group increased from week 4 to 6. Hermaphrodites appeared in the GnRH(+) group in weeks 2 and 4. Their gonads contained many apoptotic cells including oocytes. In conclusion, this study suggests that py-GnRH administration could have a potential to accelerate spermatogenesis and cause an inhibitory effect on oocyte growth in scallops.