Incorporation of powder particles into an impeller-stirred liquid bath through vortex formation

Sergey V. Komarov, Takuya Yamamoto, Hirotada Arai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


The present study addresses the incorporation of fine particles into liquids via the creation of a large-scale swirling vortex on the liquid free surface using a rotary impeller positioned along the axis of a cylindrical vessel. Four types of particles are used in the experiments to investigate the incorporation efficiency of the particles into a water bath under different impeller rotation speeds. Additionally, the vortex characteristics are investigated numerically. The results reveal that two factors, namely the particle wettability and turbulent oscillations at the bottom part of vortex surface, play dominant roles in determining the particle incorporation behavior. Hydrophobic particles are incapable of being incorporated into the water bath under any of the conditions examined in the present study. Partly wettable particles are entrained into the water bath, with the efficiency increasing with the impeller rotation speed and particle size. This is because an increase in the impeller rotation speed causes vortex deformation, whereby its bottom part approaches the impeller blades where the turbulent surface oscillations reach maximum amplitudes. Another possible mechanism of particle incorporation is the effect of capillary increases of liquid into the spaces between particles, which accumulate on the bottom surface of the vortex.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2710
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Capillary force
  • N simulation
  • Particle incorporation mechanism
  • Surface turbulent fluctuation
  • Water model experiment


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