Indonesian Hajj cohorts and mortality in Saudi Arabia from 2004 to 2011

Masdalina Pane, Fiona Yin Mei Kong, Tri Bayu Purnama, Kathryn Glass, Sholah Imari, Gina Samaan, Hitoshi Oshitani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


The Hajj is an annual pilgrimage that 1–2 million Muslims undertake in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), which is the largest mass gathering event in the world, as the world’s most populous Muslim nation, Indonesia holds the largest visa quota for the Hajj. All Hajj pilgrims under the quota system are registered in the Indonesian government’s Hajj surveillance database to ensure adherence to the KSA authorities’ health requirements. Performance of the Hajj and its rites are physically demanding, which may present health risks. This report provides a descriptive overview of mortality in Indonesian pilgrims from 2004 to 2011. The mortality rate from 2004 to 2011 ranged from 149 to 337 per 100,000 Hajj pilgrims, equivalent to the actual number of deaths ranging between 501 and 531 cases. The top two mortality causes were attributable to diseases of the circulatory and respiratory systems. Older pilgrims or pilgrims with comorbidities should be encouraged to take a less physically demanding route in the Hajj. All pilgrims should be educated on health risks and seek early health advice from the mobile medical teams provided.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11-18
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Epidemiology and Global Health
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • Cohort study
  • Mass gathering
  • Pilgrim


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