Purpose: In this study, we investigated the relationship between oxidative stress and apoptosis in synovial tissues in temporomandibular joint diseases (TMDs), including internal derangement (ID) and osteoarthritis (OA), comparing immunohistochemical, arthroscopic, and histologic findings. Materials and Methods: Synovial specimens obtained from patients with ID (31 patients), osteoarthritis (11 patients), and condylar fractures of the mandible (5 patients) during arthroscopy were examined immunohistochemically using antibodies against CD68, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Fas, and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). Results: CD68 and iNOS immunoreactivity were detected mainly in synovial lining cells and subintimal macrophages, and tended to increase with synovial hyperplasia. Fas and ssDNA immunoreactivity was detected mainly in synovial lining cells, and Fas-positive regions exhibited a number of ssDNA-positive cells. Fas expression was significantly greater in fractures than in OA, and ssDNA expression was significantly greater in OA than in ID. Fas expression was significantly greater in iNOS-positive versus iNOS-negative TMJs, and ssDNA expression tended to increase with iNOS expression. Conclusion: These immunohistochemical findings suggest that oxidative stress and apoptosis in synovial tissues are involved in the onset and progression of TMDs.