In vivo effects of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemotactic factor (CINC) derived from rats on neutrophil infiltration were investigated using an air-pouch-type inflammation model in rats, and effects of dexamethasone on neutrophil infiltration induced by CINC was also examined in order to gain further insight into the mechanism of antiinflammutory activity of glucocorticoids. Injection of CINC into the air pouch made on the dorsum of rats induced a marked infiltration of neutrophils into the pouch fluid but not mononuclear cells and eosinophils during a 30-min interval after the injection. Maximum effect was induced at a dose of 1.4 μg/pouch. Treatment with dexamethasone 3 h before the injection of CINC suppressed the neutrophil infiltration in a dose-dependent manner, but no complete inhibition was observed. CINC injection into the air pouch of rats that had been sacrificed by bleeding in order to minimize neutroph il infiltration from blood stream also stimulated neutrophil infiltration into the pouch fluid when the carcass was incubated at 37δC for 30 min, but the number of infiltrated neutrophils was about 35% of CINC-induced neutrophil infiltration in intact ruts. CINC-induced neutrophil infiltration in the carcass, which is supposed to be a reflection of neutrophil migration from extravascular space in subcutaneous tissues to pouch fluid, was not inhibited by dexamethasone treatment. Therefore, the inhibition of neutrophil infiltration by dexamethasone might be due to inhibition of the extravasation of peripheral neutrophils but not due to inhibition of neutrophil chemotaxis from subcutaneous extravascular space to pouch fluid. These findings suggest that clinical effects of steroidal antiinflammatory drugs on neutrophil infiltration in inflammatory disease is partly due to inhibition of neutrophil extravasation induced by preformed neutrophil chemotactic factors in the inflammatory site.