Influence of membrane fluidity on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 entry

Shinji Harada, Keisuke Yusa, Kazuaki Monde, Takaaki Akaike, Yosuke Maeda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)


For penetration of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), formation of fusion-pores might be required for accumulating critical numbers of fusion-activated gp41, followed by multiple-site binding of gp120 with receptors, with the help of fluidization of the plasma membrane and viral envelope. Correlation between HIV-1 infectivity and fluidity was observed by treatment of fluidity-modulators, indicating that infectivity was dependent on fluidity. A 5% decrease in fluidity suppressed the HIV-1 infectivity by 56%. Contrarily, a 5% increase in fluidity augmented the infectivity by 2.4-fold. An increased temperature of 40°C or treatment of 0.2% xylocaine after viral adsorption at room temperature enhanced the infectivity by 2.6- and 1.5-fold, respectively. These were inhibited by anti-CXCR4 peptide, implying that multiple-site binding was accelerated at 40°C or by xylocaine. Thus, fluidity of both the plasma membrane and viral envelope was required to form the fusion-pore and to complete the entry of HIV-1.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)480-486
Number of pages7
JournalBiochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2005 Apr 8


  • Fusion
  • HIV-1
  • Membrane fluidity
  • Multiple-site binding
  • Receptor
  • Viral penetration


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