Influence of Underwater Operation on Friction Stir Welding of Medium Carbon Steel

Tomoko Miyamori, Yutaka Sato, Hiroyuki Kokawa

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Friction stir welding (FSW) would be effective as an underwater repairing process of the defective steel structures. In this study, underwater and conventional FSW trials were performed on 5.5 mm thick medium carbon steel at various welding parameters, and then the feasibility of underwater FSW to steels, and the microstructures and hardness profile of the welds were examined. Underwater FSW could produce defect-free welds, and exhibited higher torque and Z-axial load than conventional one. The stir zone was composed of ferrite and pearlite after conventional FSW, while underwater FSW produced a microstructure consisting of bainite with ferrite and pearlite in the stir zone, resulting in higher hardness than the conventional one. This difference could be explained by the cooling rate and the continuous cooling transformation diagram of the steel.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMinerals, Metals and Materials Series
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages6
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Publication series

NameMinerals, Metals and Materials Series
ISSN (Print)2367-1181
ISSN (Electronic)2367-1696


  • Carbon steel
  • FSW
  • Underwater operation


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