Information leakage due to operative errors in card-based protocols

Takaaki Mizuki, Yuichi Komano

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Card-based protocols provide secure multi-party computation using a deck of physical cards via a series of operations, such as shuffling and turning over cards, that are executed by humans. Although almost all existing protocols have been designed to be perfectly secure, operative errors by humans can lead to information leakage. In this paper, we propose a technique for analyzing information leakage due to operative errors in card-based protocols. In particular, we introduce a concept, which we call a “probability trace,” and by enhancing the KWH diagram proposed by Koch, Walzer, and Härtel, we propose a diagrammatic representation for displaying the amount of information leaked. By applying our diagram to a card-based protocol with an operative error, we can precisely reveal the leakage of players' inputs from the protocol output. In addition, we discuss how to detect human errors when people execute the existing six-card AND protocol.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104910
JournalInformation and Computation
Publication statusPublished - 2022 May


  • Card-based cryptography
  • Cryptography
  • Deck of cards
  • Secure multi-party computations

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Information Systems
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computational Theory and Mathematics


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