Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) produced by myeloperoxidase (MPO) of activated neutrophils can react with nucleic acid bases to form chlorinated nucleosides such as 8-chloroguanosine (Cl-Guo). Chlorination is enhanced by nicotine. We investigated the effects of various natural antioxidants including polyphenolic phytochemicals on the formation of Cl-Guo by HOCl in the presence and the absence of nicotine. Polyphenols, including catechins, curcumin, resveratrol, silibinin, and sulfurous compound α-lipoic acid, were found to inhibit both HOCl- and human MPO-induced Cl-Guo formation dose-dependently. Among the test compounds, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) showed the strongest inhibitory effect. Cl-Guo formation, mediated by activated human neutrophils in the presence of nicotine, was inhibited by EGCG, silibinin, and α-lipoic acid. These results suggest that polyphenols and sulfurous compounds have the potential to inhibit the induction of nucleobase damage mediated by chlorination, with possible application to reducing DNA damage associated with inflammation and cigarettesmoke inhalation.
- Hypochlorous acid
- Polyphenolic phytochemicals