Nitric oxide (NO) is known to have various biologic and pathophysiologic effects on organisms. The molecular mechanisms by which NO exerts harmful effects are unknown, although various O2 radicals and ions that result from reactivity of NO are presumed to be involved. Here we report that adaptive cellular response controlled by the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) in hypoxia is suppressed by NO. Induction of erythropoietin and glycolytic aldolase A mRNAs in hypoxically cultured Hep3B cells, a human hepatoma cell line, was completely and partially inhibited, respectively, by the addition of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), which spontaneously releases NO. A reporter plasmid carrying four hypoxia-response element sequences connected to the luciferase structural gene was constructed and transfected into Hep3B cells. Inducibly expressed luciferase activity in hypoxia was inhibited by the addition of SNP and two other structurally different NO donors, S- nitroso-L-glutathione and 3-morpholinosydnonimine, giving IC50 values of 7.8, 211, and 490 μM, respectively. Inhibition by SNP was also observed in Neuro 2A and HeLa cells, indicating that the inhibition was not cell-type- specific. The vascular endothelial growth factor promoter activity that is controlled by HIF-1 was also inhibited by SNP (IC50 = 6.6 μM). Induction generated by the addition of cobalt ion (this treatment mimics hypoxia) was also inhibited by SNP (IC50 = 2.5 μM). Increased luciferase activity expressed by cotransfection of effector plasmids for HIF-1α or HIF-1α-like factor in hypoxia was also inhibited by the NO donor. We also showed that the inhibition was performed by blocking an activation step of HIF-1α to a DNA- binding form.
|Number of pages
|Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
|Published - 1998 Jun 23