Inflammatory leukocyte accumulation is a common feature of major ocular diseases, such as uveitis, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration. Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1), a cell surface and soluble molecule that possesses semi-carbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) activity, is involved in leukocyte recruitment. However, the expression of VAP-1 in the eye and its contribution to ocular inflammation are unknown. Here, we investigated the role of VAP-1 in an established model of ocular inflammation, the endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU), using a novel and specific inhibitor. Our inhibitor has a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.007 μM against human and 0.008 μM against rat SSAO, while its IC50 against the functionally related monoamine oxidase (MAO) -A and MAO-B is >10 μM. In the retina, VAP-1 was exclusively expressed in the vasculature, and its expression level was elevated during EIU. VAP-1 inhibition in EIU animals significantly suppressed leukocyte recruitment to the anterior chamber, vitreous, and retina, as well as retinal endothelial P-selectin expression. Our data suggest an important role for VAP-1 in the recruitment of leukocytes to the immune-privileged ocular tissues during acute inflammation. VAP-1 inhibition may become a novel strategy in the treatment of ocular inflammatory diseases.
- Leukocyte recruitment
- Ocular inflammation
- Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase