Integrated computational study of ultra-high heat flux cooling using cryogenic micro-solid nitrogen spray

Jun Ishimoto, U. Oh, Daisuke Tan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


A new type of ultra-high heat flux cooling system using the atomized spray of cryogenic micro-solid nitrogen (SN2) particles produced by a superadiabatic two-fluid nozzle was developed and numerically investigated for application to next generation super computer processor thermal management. The fundamental characteristics of heat transfer and cooling performance of micro-solid nitrogen particulate spray impinging on a heated substrate were numerically investigated and experimentally measured by a new type of integrated computational–experimental technique. The employed Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis based on the Euler–Lagrange model is focused on the cryogenic spray behavior of atomized particulate micro-solid nitrogen and also on its ultra-high heat flux cooling characteristics. Based on the numerically predicted performance, a new type of cryogenic spray cooling technique for application to a ultra-high heat power density device was developed. In the present integrated computation, it is clarified that the cryogenic micro-solid spray cooling characteristics are affected by several factors of the heat transfer process of micro-solid spray which impinges on heated surface as well as by atomization behavior of micro-solid particles. When micro-SN2 spraying cooling was used, an ultra-high cooling heat flux level was achieved during operation, a better cooling performance than that with liquid nitrogen (LN2) spray cooling. As micro-SN2 cooling has the advantage of direct latent heat transport which avoids the film boiling state, the ultra-short time scale heat transfer in a thin boundary layer is more possible than in LN2 spray. The present numerical prediction of the micro-SN2 spray cooling heat flux profile can reasonably reproduce the measurement results of cooling wall heat flux profiles. The application of micro-solid spray as a refrigerant for next generation computer processors is anticipated, and its ultra-high heat flux technology is expected to result in an extensive improvement in the effective cooling performance of large scale supercomputer systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)505-517
Number of pages13
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Oct 1


  • Atomization
  • Micro-solid nitrogen
  • Multiphase flow
  • Numerical analysis
  • Spray
  • Ultra-high heat flux cooling


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