Interfacial microstructure evolution and weld formation during ultrasonic welding of Al alloy to Cu

H. T. Fujii, H. Endo, Y. S. Sato, H. Kokawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

89 Citations (Scopus)


Dissimilar welds of Al alloy 1050 to Cu were prepared via ultrasonic spot welding in order to understand the formation of welds and interfacial microstructures. To observe oxide layer behavior at the weld interface, the anodized Al alloy 1050 was also welded to Cu. Mechanical mixing and material flow during ultrasonic welding broke and dispersed the oxide layers into the Al matrix. This material flow is attributed to compressive deformation that occurred due to ultrasonic vibrations. Direct bonding in the Al/Cu region increased with welding time. Once micro-bonds were generated between Al and Cu, the Al matrix in the vicinity of the weld interface was severely deformed in the direction of the ultrasonic vibrations. Consequently, a recrystallized microstructure with shear texture was formed in the Al matrix. Deformation heating and severe shear deformation formed Al2Cu intermetallic compound layers at the weld interface. The growth rate of the Al2Cu layer was much faster than had previously been estimated based upon the peak temperature and ultrasonic welding heating time. This is likely due to the increased rate of Cu diffusion into Al in the severely deformed region.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)233-240
Number of pages8
JournalMaterials Characterization
Publication statusPublished - 2018 May


  • Aluminum alloy
  • Copper
  • Intermetallic compound
  • Oxide layer
  • Ultrasonic welding


Dive into the research topics of 'Interfacial microstructure evolution and weld formation during ultrasonic welding of Al alloy to Cu'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this