Interphase precipitation of VC and resultant hardening in V-added medium carbon steels

Goro Miyamoto, Ryota Hori, Behrang Poorganji, Tadashi Furuhara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

79 Citations (Scopus)


Interphase precipitation of vanadium carbide (VC) accompanying ferrite and pearlite transformations and its effect on hardness have been examined by using medium carbon steels containing 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mass%V. Specimens transformed in a temperature range between 873 and 973 K consist of pearlite and small amount of proeutectoid ferrite. Ferrite fraction increases with raising transformation temperature or with increasing the V content. In addition to proeutectoid ferrite and pearlite, bainite is formed below 853 K, whose fraction is increased by the V addition. Hardening is significant in the V-added alloy between 873 K and 973 K and becomes larger by increasing V content in this temperature range. Meanwhile the alloying effect of V on the hardness remarkably decreases at 823 K where bainite transformation takes place partly. TEM characterization has revealed that VC are precipitated in both of proeutectoid and pearlitic ferrite with holding Baker-Nutting (B-N) orientation relationship with ferrite in the manner of fine rows parallel to the austenite / ferrite interphase boundary. Single variant of VC, whose habit plane is closer to ferrite / austenite boundary than the other two B-N variants, tends to be formed. The size of VC decreases and its number density increases by lowering transformation temperature, corresponding to the larger hardness increase.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1733-1739
Number of pages7
JournalISIJ International
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2011


  • Ferrite
  • Pearlite
  • Precipitation strengthening
  • Transformation
  • Vanadium


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