Mulberry leaves are rich in aza-sugars, particularly 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), fagomine, and 2-O-α-d-galactopyranosyl-1-deoxynojirimycin (GAL-DNJ), which have antidiabetes and antiobesity properties. To help us understand the mechanisms of action of aza-sugars, pharmacokinetic studies are necessary. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated and compared the absorption and organ distribution of these aza-sugars in rats. Following oral intake, DNJ exhibited the highest plasma concentration followed by fagomine and GAL-DNJ. Meanwhile, similar amounts of DNJ and fagomine were present in organs, while GAL-DNJ was hardly detected, suggesting the diversity in absorption and distribution characteristics of these aza-sugars. We then investigated the role of the sodium-glucose cotransporter and the glucose transporter (GLUT) in the transport of aza-sugars and found that both are involved in DNJ transport, while transport of fagomine is solely facilitated by the GLUT. These findings provide insight into the bioavailability and bioactive mechanisms of these aza-sugars.
- 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ)
- glucose transporter