Introducing hazard prediction training 'KYT' to undergraduate pharmacy education on patient safety

Yuriko Murai, Mayumi Sato, Hiroaki Yamaguchi, Miki Shimada, Nariyasu Mano, Junichi Goto, Takanori Hishinuma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


To develop students' sensitivity toword medication hazards, we have introduced a behavioral approach, "Kiken-Yochi Training" (KYT) for hazard prediction training to pharmacy education. KYT was originally implemented in the field of occupational health and safety in Japan. Only recently it has been introduced in the medical arena. The process consists of four steps; identification of hazards, assessing risks, planning countermeasure, and making action plan. One facilitator organizes the KYT class (20 students divided into four or five small groups).Watching a photo or illustration of everyday occurrences, each group follows the above four steps to discuss predictable hazards. Concepts are intensively presented in short time with brainstorming. KYT has been used with five classes thus far. Students learned KYT theory and exhibited desired attitudes and behaviors. Students presented many ideas, then formulated their own action plan within about one hour. More than 95% of KYT-naïve students assessed themselves as capable of applying the methodology in various situations. They also assessed themselves as being more aware of potential hazards and new points of view through the KYT process. Pharmacists must work for safer and more effective pharmacotherapy, predicting hazards as side effect or human error and solving the problems on each patient. KYT is a very useful and effective tool for pro-active safety training for the skill and attitude development. Repeating problem-based learning like KYT at intervals through undergraduate education should improve patient safety.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1367-1373
Number of pages7
JournalYakugaku Zasshi
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2009 Nov


  • Kiken-Yochi Training (KYT)
  • Patient safety
  • Pharmacy education
  • Problem-based learning
  • Risk management
  • Small group discussion


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