It is well known that the brain is one of the organs particularly affected by aging in terms of function, relative to the gastrointestinal tract and liver, which exhibit less functional decline. There is also a wide range of age-related neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. Therefore, it is very important to understand the relationship between functional age-related change and neurological dysfunction. Neuroimaging techniques including magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography have been significantly improved over recent years. Many physicians and researchers have investigated various mechanisms of age-related cerebral change and associated neurological disorders using neuroimaging techniques. In this special issue of Ageing Research Reviews, we focus on cerebral- and neuro-imaging, which are a range of tools used to visualize structure, functions, and pathogenic molecules in the nervous system. In addition, we summarize several review articles about the history, present values, and future perspectives of neuroimaging modalities.