With the rising importance of information security, the necessity of implementing better security measures in the physical layer as well as the upper layers is becoming increasing apparent. Given the development of more accurate and less expensive measurement devices, high-performance computers, and larger storage devices, the threat of advanced attacks at the physical level has expanded from the military and governmental spheres to commercial products. In this paper, we review the issue of information security degradation through electromagnetic (EM)-based compromising of security measures in the physical layer (i.e., EM information security). Owing to the invisibility of EM radiation, such attacks can be serious threats. We first introduce the mechanism of information leakage through EM radiation and interference and then present possible countermeasures. Finally, we explain the latest research and standardization trends related to EM information security.
- Electromagnetic compatibility
- EM information security
- Fault analysis
- Hardware Trojan horse
- Side-channel attacks