Invasion history of Cardamine hirsuta in Japan inferred from genetic analyses of herbarium specimens and current populations

Saeko Matsuhashi, Hiroshi Kudoh, Masayuki Maki, Maria Cartolano, Miltos Tsiantis, Tomoyuki Itagaki, Satoki Sakai

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7 Citations (Scopus)


Multiple introductions of a species are thought to enhance its invasion success by increasing genotypic diversity; this involves frequent crossing among different lineages. However, genetic diversity through crossing is less likely in autogamous species. To understand the impact of multiple introductions on the colonization success of autogamous species, we studied hairy bittercress, Cardamine hirsuta, which invaded Japan several decades ago. We detected temporal changes in its population structure using nine microsatellite markers amplified from leaf samples collected from 87 sites between 2009 and 2010, and herbarium specimens collected between 1988 and 2007. To examine whether the phenotypic variation corresponded with the genetic population structure, we also investigated the geographic variation in the lateral stamen number of this species across 49 sites. The present populations can be divided into three genetic groups, which are distributed in northern, eastern, and western Japan. This finding suggests that there are three invasive lineages (North, East, and West) in Japan. The geographic variation in lateral stamen number corresponded to the distributions of these lineages. The former distributions of the North and West lineages mostly corresponded to those found at present, but they were also historically found in eastern Japan. However, the East lineage has apparently expanded into eastern Japan, resulting in a change in dominant lineages over only a few decades. For the autogamous C. hirsuta, multiple introductions contributed toward colonization success over a wider range, which was associated with a local change in the dominant lineages.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1939-1951
Number of pages13
JournalBiological Invasions
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Jul 1


  • Alien species
  • Biological invasion
  • Brassicaceae
  • Multiple introductions
  • Phylogeography
  • SSR analysis


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