Caenorhabditis elegans possesses two p97/VCP/Cdc48p homologues, named CDC-48.1 (C06A1.1) and CDC-48.2 (C41C4.8), and their expression patterns and levels are differently regulated. To clarify the regulatory mechanisms of differential expression of two p97 proteins of C. elegans, we performed detailed deletion analysis of their promoter regions. We found that the promoter of cdc-48.1 contains two regions necessary for embryonic and for post-embryonic expression, while the promoter of cdc-48.2 contains the single region necessary for embryonic expression. In particular, two elements (Element A and Element B) and three conserved boxes (Box a, Box b and Box c) were essential for cdc-48.1 expression in embryos and at post-embryonic stages, respectively. By using South-Western blotting and MALDI-TOF MS analysis, we identified HMG-12 and CAR-1 as proteins that bind to Element A and Element B, respectively, from the embryonic nuclear extract. Importantly, we found the decreased expression of p97 in embryos prepared from hmg-12(RNAi) or car-1(RNAi) worms. These results indicate that both HMG-12 and CAR-1 play important roles in embryonic expression of cdc-48.1.
- C. elegans
- Gene expression