The feedback error learning (FEL) scheme was Studied for a functional electrical stimulation (FES) controller. This FEL controller was a hybrid regulator with a feedforward and a feedback controller. The feedforward controller learned the inverse dynamics of a controlled object from feedback controller outputs while control. A four-layered neural network and the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller were used for each controller. The palmar/dorsi-flexion angle of the wrist was controlled in both computer simulation and FES experiments. Some controller parameters, such as the learning speed coefficient and the number of neurons, were determined in simulation using an artificial forward model of the wrist. The forward model was prepared by using a neural network that can imitate responses of subject's wrist to electrical stimulation. Then, six able-bodied subjects' wrist was controlled with the FEL controller by delivering stimuli to one antagonistic muscle pair. Results showed that the FEL controller functioned as expected and performed better than the conventional PID controller adjusted by the Chien, Hrones and Reswick method for a fast movement with the cycle period of 2 s, resulting in decrease of the average tracking error and shortened delay in the response. Furthermore, learning iteration was shortened if the feedforward controller had been trained in advance with the artificial forward model.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)359-371
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2005 Sept


  • Controller
  • Feedback error learning (FEL)
  • Functional electrical stimulation (FES)
  • Neural network


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