Key factors in grain refinement of martensite and bainite

T. Furuhara, N. Takayama, G. Miyamoto

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)


Grain refinement in lath martensite and bainite structures, which is important for strengthening and toughening, are discussed in various aspects. Strain accommodation plays important roles to determine final crystal sizes of bainitic ferrite (BF) and martensite. There is strong variant selection of BF by natures of the austenite grain boundary where it nucleates. For small undercooling, such variant selection leads to coarse bainite block and packet sizes. More BF variants are formed by increasing undercooling, which leads to nucleation of BF variants of less potency, and by increasing strength of materials, which results in more self-accommodation of transformation strain due to suppression of plastic accommodation. In lath martensite, there seems to be similar variant selection at austenite grain boundaries. However, packet/block sizes in lath martensite decreases with an increase in carbon content because of more extensive self-accommodation due to lower transformation temperatures than bainite.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationTHERMEC 2009
EditorsTara Chandra, Tara Chandra, Tara Chandra, N. Wanderka, N. Wanderka, N. Wanderka, Walter Reimers, Walter Reimers, Walter Reimers, M. Ionescu, M. Ionescu, M. Ionescu
PublisherTrans Tech Publications Ltd
Number of pages6
ISBN (Print)0878492941, 9780878492947
Publication statusPublished - 2010
Event6th International Conference on Processing and Manufacturing of Advanced Materials - THERMEC'2009 - Berlin, Germany
Duration: 2009 Aug 252009 Aug 29

Publication series

NameMaterials Science Forum
ISSN (Print)0255-5476
ISSN (Electronic)1662-9752


Conference6th International Conference on Processing and Manufacturing of Advanced Materials - THERMEC'2009


  • Bainite
  • Crystallography
  • Grain boundary
  • Martensite
  • Phase transformation
  • Steel


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