Kinetic study on recovery of antimony in anode slime from used lead batteries utilizing volatile oxide formation

Satoshi Itoh, Junji Ono, Mitsutaka Hino, Tetsuya Nagasaka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


From the viewpoint of recycling and recovery of metal values from used lead-batteries, especially from lead anode slime, recovery of antimony has been studied experimentally. First, oxidation kinetics has been investigated for pure liquid antimony in the temperature range between 973 and 1373 K to elucidate the reaction mechanism. Since lead anode slime generally consists of antimony, lead and bismuth, oxidation experiments have also been carried out using antimony-lead-bismuth alloy. It was found that gas phase mass transfer step mainly controls the overall oxidation rate. The overall rate was expressed as the sum of antimony oxide and metallic antimony evaporation rates. The oxide evaporation is dominant at lower temperature around 1073 K with higher oxygen partial pressure. In the experiment of the antimony-leadbismuth alloy simulated for anode slime, only the oxide Sb4O6 evaporation was observed, indicating that antimony was preferentially oxidized followed by evaporation of antimony oxide. The oxidation rate of the alloy was substantially identical with that of pure antimony. This is the advantage of oxidation treatment for anode slime.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)658-664
Number of pages7
JournalMaterials Transactions
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2005 Mar


  • Antimony oxidation followed by evaporation as antimony oxide Sb O
  • Kinetics
  • Lead-battery
  • Rate-determining step
  • Reaction mechanism
  • Recycling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Kinetic study on recovery of antimony in anode slime from used lead batteries utilizing volatile oxide formation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this