Lifetime risk of stroke stratified by chronic kidney disease and hypertension in the general Asian population: the Ohasama study

Shingo Nakayama, Michihiro Satoh, Hirohito Metoki, Takahisa Murakami, Kei Asayama, Azusa Hara, Takuo Hirose, Atsuhiro Kanno, Ryusuke Inoue, Megumi Tsubota-Utsugi, Masahiro Kikuya, Takefumi Mori, Atsushi Hozawa, Yutaka Imai, Takayoshi Ohkubo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Lifetime risk (LTR) evaluates the absolute risk of developing a disease during the remainder of one’s life. It can be a useful tool, enabling the general public to easily understand their risk of stroke. No study has been performed to determine the LTR of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) with or without hypertension; therefore, we performed this study in an Asian population. We followed 1525 participants (66.0% women; age 63.1 years) in the general population of Ohasama, Japan. We defined CKD as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and/or proteinuria. Hypertension was defined as a systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥140/≥90 mmHg and/or the use of antihypertensive medication. We calculated the sex-specific LTR of stroke adjusted for the competing risk of death. During the mean follow-up period of 16.5 years, a first stroke occurred in 238 participants. The 10-year risk of stroke at the age of 45 years was 0.0% for men and women. The LTRs of stroke at the index age of 45 years (men/women) were 20.9%/14.5% for participants without CKD and hypertension, 34.1%/29.8% for those with CKD but not hypertension, 37.9%/27.3% for those with hypertension but not CKD, and 38.4%/36.4% for those with CKD and hypertension. The LTRs of stroke tended to be higher in younger participants than in older participants with CKD and/or hypertension. CKD contributed to the LTR of stroke, as did hypertension. The prevention of CKD and hypertension can reduce the LTR of stroke, especially in young populations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)866-873
Number of pages8
JournalHypertension Research
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Jul


  • Lifetime risk
  • chronic kidney disease
  • epidemiology
  • hypertension
  • stroke


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