ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) play crucial roles in the intracellular vesicular transport and in regulation of phospholipid-modifying enzyme activities and cytoskeletons. Using in situ hybridization histochemistry, the gene expression for six isoforms of ARF was examined during normal development of rats and in the hypoglossal nucleus following its axotomy. In the embryonic brain, the expression for ARF-1, -4, -5, -6 mRNAs was distinct in the ventricular germinal zone while that for ARF-3, -4, -5 in the mantle zone. In early postnatal brain, the expression for six ARFs was seen widely in various loci of the gray matter with different intensity, and the expression of ARF-4, -5, -6 mRNAs was evident in the cerebellar external granule cell layer. In the adult brain, the gene expression for all ARF isoforms decreased more or less in most gray matters and the distinct expression was maintained mainly in the hippocampal and dentate neuronal layers and cerebellar cortex. The expression levels of ARF-2 and -4 mRNAs in affected hypoglossal nucleus increased after 24 h up to 7 days following axotomy of the hypoglossal nerve, while no such changes were seen in the expression levels for the other ARFs. The present findings suggest that ARFs are differentially involved in some processes essential to nerve regeneration as well as neuronal differentiation and maturation.
- ADP-ribosylation factor
- In situ hybridization