Long-term effect of motor cortical repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation induces

Takuya Hayashi, Takashi Ohnishi, Shingo Okabe, Noboru Teramoto, Yukio Nonaka, Hiroshi Watabe, Etsuko Imabayashi, Yoichiro Ohta, Hiroshi Jino, Norimasa Ejima, Tohru Sawada, Hidehiro Iida, Hiroshi Matsuda, Yoshikazu Ugawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

49 Citations (Scopus)


Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) recently has been assessed as a noninvasive treatment modality for movement and psychiatric disorders, whereas the mechanism underlying the therapeutic effects is not fully understood. Studies in rodents showed lasting functional changes in some selected regions, such as limbic-associated structures, but unfocused brain stimulation did not clarify the regional effects. To address the topographical and temporal profiles of the effects on glucose metabolism in primate brain, we performed rTMS and repeated 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) before, during, and up to 16 days after rTMS in anesthetized cynomologous monkeys. We delivered a total of 2,000 pulses of 5Hz-rTMS over the right precentral gyrus using a small-sized eight-figured coil that induced a localized electrical field. Voxel-based analysis in a standard space of the macaque brain showed statistically robust changes in FDG uptake: a decrease in the motor/premotor cortices and an increase in the limbic-associated areas involving the anterior/posterior cingulate, and orbitofrontal cortices. Interestingly, these uptake changes continued for at least 8 days and the magnitude of the lasting effects in the limbic-related areas was negatively correlated across subjects with those in the motor/premotor cortices. The results demonstrate that motor rTMS has a long-term lasting effect on motor-related regions and distant limbic-related areas via functional connections.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)77-85
Number of pages9
JournalAnnals of Neurology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2004 Jul
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


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