Long-term field survey on thermal adaptation in office buildings in Japan

T. Goto, T. Mitamura, H. Yoshino, A. Tamura, E. Inomata

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

73 Citations (Scopus)


A long-term field survey was conducted with six buildings in order to investigate how the occupants adapt to the indoor climate in office buildings in Japan. More than 5000 questionnaires and corresponding indoor temperatures were collected. Clothing adjustment was observed to be related to outdoor temperature and indoor temperature, as well as dress codes. No considerable differences were found on the thermal perceptions between two groups of buildings, which provided different levels of opportunity for controlling indoor climate. With both groups, the preferred SET* was always close to 26 °C. The comfort temperature was estimated from the results of clothing adjustment and the preferred SET*. The gradient of the comfort temperature to outdoor temperature was found to be between the adaptive model for centralized HVAC and for natural ventilation. It could be caused by that the major part of the occupants in the present study had more opportunity to control their thermal conditions than in the centralized HVAC buildings (i.e. operable windows, controllable HVAC or personal fans).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3944-3954
Number of pages11
JournalBuilding and Environment
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2007 Dec


  • Adaptation
  • Clothing insulation
  • Field survey
  • Office building
  • Thermal comfort


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