Long-term variations of surface and intermediate waters in the southern Indian Ocean along 32°S

Taiyo Kobayashi, Keisuke Mizuno, Toshio Suga

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9 Citations (Scopus)


Variations of water properties in surface and intermediate layers along 32°S in the southern Indian Ocean were examined using a 50-year (1960-2010) time series reproduced from historical hydrographic and Argo data by using optimum interpolation. Salinity in the 26.7-27.3σ θ density layer decreased significantly over the whole section, at a maximum rate of 0.02 decade -1 at 26.8-26.9σ θ, for the 50-year average. Three deoxygenating cores were identified east of 75°E, and the increasing rate of apparent oxygen utilization in the most prominent core (26.9-27.0σ θ) exceeded 0.05 ml l -1 decade -1. The pycnostad core of Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW) and the salinity minimum of Antarctic Intermediate Water shifted slightly toward the lighter layers. Comparisons with trans-Indian Ocean survey data from 1936 suggest that the tendencies found in the time series began before 1960. Interestingly, cores of many prominent trends were located just offshore of Australia at 26.7-27.0σ θ, which is in the SAMW density range. Spectrum analysis revealed that two oscillation components with time scales of about 40 and 10 years were dominant in the subsurface layers. Our results are fairly consistent with, and thus support, the oceanic responses in the southern Indian Ocean to anthropogenic climate change predicted by model studies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)243-265
Number of pages23
JournalJournal of Oceanography
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Apr


  • Antarctic Intermediate Water
  • Climate change
  • Long-term trend
  • Oscillation
  • Southern Indian Ocean
  • Subantarctic Mode Water

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oceanography


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