Low Openness on the Revised NEO Personality Inventory as a Risk Factor for Treatment-Resistant Depression

Michio Takahashi, Yukihiko Shirayama, Katsumasa Muneoka, Masatoshi Suzuki, Koichi Sato, Kenji Hashimoto

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37 Citations (Scopus)


Background:Recently, we reported that low reward dependence, and to a lesser extent, low cooperativeness in the Temperature and Character Inventory (TCI) may be risk factors for treatment-resistant depression. Here, we analyzed additional psychological traits in these patients.Methods:We administered Costa and McCrae's five-factor model personality inventory, NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R), to antidepressant-treatment resistant depressed patients (n = 35), remitted depressed patients (n = 27), and healthy controls (n = 66). We also evaluated the relationships between scores on NEO and TCI, using the same cohort of patients with treatment-resistant depression, as our previous study.Results:Patients with treatment-resistant depression showed high scores for neuroticism, low scores for extraversion, openness and conscientiousness, without changes in agreeableness, on the NEO. However, patients in remitted depression showed no significant scores on NEO. Patients with treatment-resistant depression and low openness on NEO showed positive relationships with reward dependence and cooperativeness on the TCI.Conclusions:Many studies have reported that depressed patients show high neuroticism, low extraversion and low conscientiousness on the NEO. Our study highlights low openness on the NEO, as a risk mediator in treatment-resistant depression. This newly identified trait should be included as a risk factor in treatment-resistant depression.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere71964
JournalPloS one
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Sept 3
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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