Memory rehabilitation of an amnesic patient following limbic encephalitis and a role of family members: A case report

Eiko Yamamoto, Shin Ichi Izumi, Kaoru Shimakura, Masayo Sawatari, Akira Ishida

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


We describe problems in daily living that arose in a 46-year-old man with severe amnesia following limbic encephalitis. Amnesic symptoms changed from stage I (difficulty in memory retention) to stage II (loss of continuity of memory) and finally to stage III (paramnesia and confused sequence of events), significantly affecting his ability to function. Questionnaire response assessment, directly observed behavior, neuropsychological testing, and especially interviewing permitted qualitative assessment of clinical changes, promoted patient insight into the memory disturbance, and enhanced motivation to use a memory notebook. Additionally, the family gained a better understanding of the disorder, made appropriate environmental modifications, and provided other necessary assistance. Episodic memory improved, and the memory notebook served as an effective compensatory tool. However, disturbance in prospective memory did not improve, and was not compensated adequately by use of the notebook. Anxiety and significant impairment of everyday functioning resulted. Long-term supportive intervention at home was necessary. The patient's wife in particular needed to make environmental adjustments and aid him in use of the notebook.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)173-181
Number of pages9
JournalTokai Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine
Issue number4-6
Publication statusPublished - 2000 Dec 1
Externally publishedYes


  • Amnesia
  • Episodic memory
  • Memory notebook
  • Neuropsychology
  • Prospective memory
  • Rehabilitation
  • Temporal lobe

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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