Methylglyoxal Induces Inflammation, Metabolic Modulation and Oxidative Stress in Myoblast Cells

Sota Todoriki, Yui Hosoda, Tae Yamamoto, Mayu Watanabe, Akiyo Sekimoto, Hiroshi Sato, Takefumi Mori, Mariko Miyazaki, Nobuyuki Takahashi, Emiko Sato

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Uremic sarcopenia is a serious clinical problem associated with physical disability and increased morbidity and mortality. Methylglyoxal (MG) is a highly reactive, dicarbonyl uremic toxin that accumulates in the circulatory system in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is related to the pathology of uremic sarcopenia. The pathophysiology of uremic sarcopenia is multifactorial; however, the details remain unknown. We investigated the mechanisms of MG-induced muscle atrophy using mouse myoblast C2C12 cells, focusing on intracellular metabolism and mitochondrial injury. We found that one of the causative pathological mechanisms of uremic sarcopenia is metabolic flow change to fatty acid synthesis with MG-induced ATP shortage in myoblasts. Evaluation of cell viability revealed that MG showed toxic effects only in myoblast cells, but not in myotube cells. Expression of mRNA or protein analysis revealed that MG induces muscle atrophy, inflammation, fibrosis, and oxidative stress in myoblast cells. Target metabolomics revealed that MG induces metabolic alterations, such as a reduction in tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites. In addition, MG induces mitochondrial morphological abnormalities in myoblasts. These changes resulted in the reduction of ATP derived from the mitochondria of myoblast cells. Our results indicate that MG is a pathogenic factor in sarcopenia in CKD.

Original languageEnglish
Article number263
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Apr


  • chronic kidney disease
  • metabolic alteration
  • methylglyoxal
  • myoblast cell
  • sarcopenia


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