Microinvasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, namely ductal carcinoma in situ with microinvasion (T1mic) as defined by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Staging Manual, is a rare disease, although it is increasing because of widespread use of mammography. The aim of the present study was to describe the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of this entity. Twenty-eight patients who were diagnosed as T1mic from January 1997 to August 2002 were studied by using 3-5 mm-thick serial sections with hematoxylin-eosin staining. Immunohistochemical staining for the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), p53, Ki-67, and HER-2 were performed. All 28 patients were female, with a mean age of 48.8 years. Twenty-six patients (93%) revealed mammographic abnormalities on routine examination. All foci of the invasions were measured using an ocular micrometer. Invasive foci consisted of isolated cells or cell clusters, or appeared as a tongue-like projection of tumor through the basement membrane of the duct of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). The mean number of invasive foci was 3, and the mean size was 0.6 mm. We found that high nuclear grade and predominant comedo subtype of DCIS components were 57.1% and 46.4%, respectively. Twenty-four cases (86%) demonstrated necrosis of DCIS components. Microinvasion was often associated with periductal stromal reaction (71.5%) and/or a lymphocytic infiltration (78.6%). All patients, excluding two, received axillary resection (the mean number of lymph nodes examined per case was 12), and none had lymph node metastasis. The positive expression of ER and PR strongly related to low grade nuclei and non-comedo subtype; however, the positive expression of HER-2 and P53 related to high grade nuclei and comedo subtype (P < 0.01). Ki-67 expression was significantly higher in the high grade nuclei group than in the low grade group (P < 0.01). Our study suggested that high nuclear grade and comedo DCIS were more aggressive and more common with microinvasion, and that microinvasion is more likely to be multifocal.
- Breast carcinoma
- Ductal carcinoma in situ