Microstructures of beta-titanium orthodontic wires joined by infrared brazing

Masahiro Iijima, William A. Brantley, Isao Kawashima, Naoki Baba, Satish B. Alapati, Toshihiro Yuasa, Hiroki Ohno, Itaru Mizoguchi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


The microstructures and interdiffusion in brazed beta-titanium orthodontic wires were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis, respectively. Beta-titanium wire (Ti-11Mo-6Zr-4Sn) with cross-section dimensions of 0.032 in. × 0.032 in., titanium-based braze alloy (Ti-30Ni-20Cu), and silver-based braze alloy (Ag-22Cu-17Zn-SSn) were selected for the study. Brazing was performed using infrared radiation (RS-1) under an argon atmosphere. Specimens were etched with two solutions (2.5% HF + 2.5% HNO3 + 95% H2O; 25% HN4OH + 30% H 2O2 + 45%H2O). It was found that the silver-based braze alloy has a eutectic structure. In the diffusion layer between the beta-titanium wire and this silver-based braze alloy, Cu and Ti were enriched on the wire side, and Sn and Ti were enriched on the braze alloy side. The titanium-based braze alloy has a dendritic structure. Beta-titanium wire specimens brazed with the titanium-based braze alloy had a thicker intermediate area compared to the silver alloy; Ti in the diffusion layer had an irregular concentration gradient, and the braze alloy side had higher Ti concentration. The original microstructure of the beta-titanium wire was not altered with the use of either braze alloy. Infrared brazing of beta-titanium orthodontic wire is acceptable for clinical use, since the wire microstrocture did not deteriorate with either the titanium-based or silver-based braze alloy. The differing microstructures of the joint regions for the two braze alloys suggest that the joint strengths may also differ.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)137-141
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part B Applied Biomaterials
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2006 Oct
Externally publishedYes


  • Beta-titanium wire
  • Infrared radiation
  • Soldering

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering


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