Microtopography of titanium suppresses osteoblastic differentiation but enhances chondroblastic differentiation of rat femoral periosteum-derived cells

Katsutoshi Kubo, Wael Att, Masahiro Yamada, Kuzuhiro Ohmi, Naoki Tsukimura, Takeo Suzuki, Hatsuhiko Maeda, Takahiro Ogawa

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29 Citations (Scopus)


Despite the clinical fact that endosseous titanium implants directly contacts periosteum, the behavior and response of the periosteum-derived cells to surface topography of titanium have rarely been studied. This study examines the effect of titanium surface microtopography on osteoblastic and possibly-modulated chondroblastic phenotypes of femoral periosteum-derived cells. Rat femoral periosteum-derived cells were cultured on either relatively smooth, machined titanium surface or acid-etched, micro-roughened titanium surface. The osteoblastic gene expressions, including collagen I, osteopontin and osteocalcin, were downregulated on the acid-etched surface, compared with the machined surface. Alkaline phosphatase and mineralization activities on the acid-etched surface were ∼20% of those on the machined surface. Instead, chondroblastic specific genes, including collagen II and IX, and sox 9, were exclusively expressed or highly upregulated on the acid-etched surface. Alcian blue stain revealed an extensive deposition of glycosaminoglycan on the acid-etched surface. The cultured matrix on the acid-etched surface lacked the submicron globular structures that were extensively seen on the machined surface, and contained a remarkably increased percentage of sulfur relative to calcium compared with the culture on the machined surface. These results indicated that titanium microroughness suppresses the osteoblastic phenotype and induces or at least considerably enhances the chondroblastic phenotype of the periosteal cells, suggesting the unique role of titanium surface topography in regulating the periosteal cell differentiation. The suppressive effect of titanium microroughness on the periosteal cells toward the osteoblastic linage was contrasted to the known promotive effect on the bone marrow-derived osteoblasts.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)380-391
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part A
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2008 Nov
Externally publishedYes


  • Acid etching
  • Bone-titanium integration
  • Endosseous implant
  • Femur
  • Osseointegration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Metals and Alloys


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