Misexpression of genes in brain vesicles by in ovo electroporation

Harukazu Nakamura, Yuji Watanabe, Jun Ichi Funahashi

Research output: Contribution to journalShort surveypeer-review

69 Citations (Scopus)


Transfection to living chick embryos in ovo by electroporation has been recently developed. In this mini-review, misexpression in brain vesicles is introduced. To transfect, expression plasmid is inserted in the brain vesicle, and the square pulse of 25 V, 50 ms was charged five times. The translation product of the transfected gene is detected 2 h after electroporation, and reaches the peak at 24 h after electroporation. Transfection is so effective that this method is contributing greatly to the study of the molecular mechanisms of morphogenesis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)199-201
Number of pages3
JournalDevelopment Growth and Differentiation
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2000


  • Chick embryos
  • Electroporation
  • In ovo
  • Transfection


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