Moircs deep survey. V. A universal relation for stellar mass and surface brightness of galaxies

Takashi Ichikawa, Masaru Kajisawa, Toru Yamada, Masayuki Akiyama, Tomohiro Yoshikawa, Masato Onodera, Masahiro Konishi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


We present a universal linear correlation between the stellar mass and surface brightness (SB) of galaxies at 0.3 < z < 3, using a deep K-band-selected catalog in the GOODS-North region. The correlation has a nearly constant slope, independent of redshift and color of galaxies in the rest-z frame. Considering unresolved compact galaxies, the tight correlation gives a lower boundary of SB for a given stellar mass; lower SB galaxies are prohibited over the boundary. The universal slope suggests that the stellar mass in galaxies was built up over their cosmic histories in a similar manner irrelevant to galaxy mass, as opposed to the scenario that massive galaxies mainly accumulated their stellar mass by major merging. In contrast, SB shows a strong dependence on redshift for a given stellar mass. It evolves as ∼ (1 + z)-2.0∼ -0.8, in addition to dimming as (1 + z)4 by the cosmological expansion effect. The brightening depends on galaxy color and stellar mass. The blue population (rest-frame U - V < 0), which is dominated by young and star-forming galaxies, evolves as ∼ (1 + z) -0.8± 0.3 in the rest-V band. On the other hand, the red population (U - V>0) and the massive galaxies (M *>1010 M Ȯ) show stronger brightening, (1 + z)-1.50.1. By comparison with galaxy evolution models, the phenomena are well understood by the pure luminosity evolution of galaxies out to z ∼ 3.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)741-748
Number of pages8
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2010


  • Galaxies: evolution
  • Galaxies: fundamental parameters
  • Galaxies: high-redshift
  • Infrared: galaxies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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